When discussing multiple languages and characters sets, you will run into the following important terms:
Character sets are collections of letters and symbols.
Encodings are the internal representations of the members of a character set.
Collations are the instructions that dictate how characters are to be compared.
-- 显示当前的字符集和排序规则 SHOW VARIABLES LIKE ‘character%‘; SHOW VARIABLES LIKE ‘collation%‘; -- 显示所有可用的字符集和排序规则 SHOW CHARACTER SET; SHOW COLLATION;